In the video link below some archery is demonstrated based on practical research.... years of it. He looked at the data and did some experiments and then looked for more information etc. Round and round the process of research, do, evaluate, research, do evaluate went on and this is the spectacular result.
The work sheds new light on recent historical battles where archery played an important role such as Crecy, Hastings, the Crusades etc. These archery techniques were known to the Egyptians and were probably around back into the paleolithic period. Because techniques are software unlike the hardware (eg pictures of archers, bows, arrows etc) it is easy to underestimate the level of sophistication of archery.
Apply this example to other physical artefacts left by our paleolithic ancestors and its easy to see that we tend to underestimate their level of sophistication. Any quick reading of readily available information makes it obvious that hunter gatherers have an encyclopaedic knowledge knowledge of edible plants, herbs, animals, weather etc. If you read around you can also see information that indicates that many of these people new about nutrition ie eating a preys eye and associated tissues cures human blindness due to vitamin A deficiency etc/ But, the archery information was a surprise to me and I wonder what else our paleo ancestors knew about that we have not recognised.
Anyway, here is that clip:
Monday, 26 January 2015
I know an elderly person who suffers from the gout and so did a bit of looking into it.
Gout is a well known disease that was rare until last century. Prior to that it afflicted the rich and wealthy. The symptoms of gout are caused by a buildup of uric acid crystals in various joints- particularly the feet, ankle or knee but, can be present in any other joint. Gout is associated with various other conditions eg high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, obesity and increased blood triglycerides, increased small dense LDL cholesterol and decreased HDL cholesterol.
Gout is unknown in hunter gatherer societies. For those familiar with the primal - paleo diet the above picture will sound familiar- ie unknown in primitive societies, rare in the west till after the industrial revolution, greatly increased incidence in the last few decades.
Uric acid crystals cause the inflammation\pain in gout. So, more uric acid can arise from
- eating more of it (or things made into to it)
- making more of it
- excreting less of it.
- turnover of purines - 2/3 uric acid arises from turn over within the body
- eating meat and shellfish
- about 1/3 of dietary purines
- meat and shell fish are largely protein which increases uric acid excretion by kidneys.
- eating carbohydrates (grains and refined sugars) increase uric acid synthesis in liver and reduce its excretion by kidneys
- eating protein increases uric acid excretion by kidneys. This includes protein from meat and shellfish.
- alcohol increases uric acid production and reduces its excretion.
This would all seem to indicate a higher protein diet, reduced high glycemic index\load carbohydrates (eg no grains but vegetables with some fruit). One trial of this was done and published in 2000. Back then, the idea of high protein diet replacement drinks was considered radical and needed a prescription in some countries. Now you can buy them off the shelf at your local chemist or supermarket. Times change. It be no surprise to learn that using a paleo diet for gout is not widely known and the most widely recommended gout diet is based on limiting protein and increasing grains and refined sugars foods. This is also well known to have only a small effect, if any, on the gout which is usually described as "difficult to treat".
The reference for that small published trial is:
Dessein, Shipton, Stanwix, Joffe, Ramokgadi (2000) Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on se rum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis59(7):539-43.
There may be other trials out there as well. Researchers out there.... there may be an oppurtunity here for a clinical study of paleo diet for gout sufferers or if you are very conservative a somewhat higher protein, low glycemic index, low glycemic load trial for gout sufferers. Mediterranean would be expected to work better than the conventional western diet but a primal paleo diet would be expected to work better.